Set B, Supplementary Slide Set:

Set B

Title Slide: “Light Pollution.” We call the problem light pollution. Pollution is something made by mankind that threatens mankind, either all of us or some of us.
Text Slide: “The Adverse Effects of Poor Lighting.” Quality lighting has none of these problems. Glare never helps visibility, yet it is much too common. Some people actually believe that there isn’t any light unless there is glare, because we are so used to seeing only bad lighting with its associated glare. Light Trespass is someone else’s light that bothers you. Clutter, confusing, and trashy looking nighttime lighting is a result of too much bad lighting. Energy waste is due to wasted light and to inefficient lighting sources. Light pollution is the urban sky glow above any city, hiding our view of the universe. Often light pollution may be used as a term to cover all these adverse effects.
Text Slide: “Attack Bad Lighting, Not People.” People usually put in lighting for a purpose. It is a fact however that very few know anything about good lighting, and so they end up with a bad design. Help them get what they want they want and need: Good lighting to help solve their needs.
Text Slide: “The International Dark-Sky Association.” [Offer statistics on the organization, urge people to join. Mention the resources available. See information sheets No 15 and 16 especially. We need all the help we can get.]
“Globes!” Another type of poor lighting fixture. Why does anyone use these? Answer: because they look good in the daytime. But what about at night?
“Globes at Night.” The problem comes at night, when one tries to use them for lighting. If one uses only a very low wattage lamp, one gets little light, certainly not much on the ground. However, the fixture can have a nice soft glow, rather like it looks in the day. That seems to be the goal (or task) that the architect or design wants to achieve. If one tries to light the ground (street or parking lot, for example), then one has a problem. With a high enough wattage lamp in the fixture to get light on the ground (note how much is wasted, over half, as the pole blocks some of the down light), so much glare produced that one can’t see the ground anyway.
“Globes.” How a design should look: a faint, attractive glow. This way we get the nice ambience of the globes, as when they contained a natural gas lighting source, but we do not expect it to be the way to light the ground. One should install a separate lighting system to do that, just as many communities have done.
Here is an example of How To Do It, if one wants both the nice appearance in the day (and at night too) and good lighting as well. Use the globes, in a nice fixture, but with very low wattage lamps. Then they look like they did long ago, when the installation had a nice appearance. Then add a full cut off street lighting (or area lighting) system on higher poles and with a lamp and fixture that give good lighting control and at the recommended lighting levels. We all win.
“Dupont Circle in Washington DC,” from a fourth floor window. Note the glare, note the lack of adequate light on the ground, note all the waste. Does this lighting give one the impression of safety, either as a motorist or a pedestrian?
A view of a parking lot, one lit by glary lighting. Can you see the criminal? Blinded by glare.
Same view (#10), but with a flash photograph to show where he is. Can you design a better, safer installation?
A full cutoff "shoe box" street or area lighting fixture, with an HPS lamp. The control of the light output is by a reflector, not by a refractor. No direct up light at all. No glare.
Another type of full cutoff fixture, at major shopping center parking lot. No glare, no light trespass to bother neighbors, no wasted light. The poles are high, so light gets between cards. A safe, effective, efficient, good design. Everyone wins.
The same installation at night (#13). Look good to you?
A view of Tucson street lighting, one of the major streets, seen from above. See the nice lighting on the street and in the parking lots: no glare, no direct up light, good lighting levels. Note also the good lighting at the tennis facilities in the background. Note the bad, glary lighting at the swimming pool in the further background. A slide in another IDA slide set show nearly the same view after the pool lighting was replaced with good lighting.
A similar view of the same area, after the re-lighting of the swimming facility. Obtrusive lighting is now gone.
A nighttime view of the Pima County Prison, an installation that uses only full cutoff fixtures, on poles and on the walls. Everyone likes it. There are no neighbor complaints. Compare this situation to most prison lighting, which is often very glary.
A view of the low pressure sodium (LPS) installation at the University of Arizona main mall. Notice the excellent light distribution, minimal energy use for the application, and the comfortable and safe environment
A street in Long Beach, California, lit entirely with low pressure sodium (LPS) lighting. The one disadvantage of LPS, for some applications, is its total lack of color rendering. Since all the light output is at one wavelength (two, actually, but very close together in color; the resonance sodium doublet in the yellow), all things look that color, or sort of pale brownish, if faint. So it is not a good light source for car dealer lots (unless creative, professional lighting design is used; see Slide No. 20), or for most interior lighting. It is excellent for streets, parking lots, most all security lighting, and any applications where one needs light, not color. But notice in the slide that you can easily tell the correct color of the grass and of the parked cars.
A night view of a new car lot dealership, in which the lighting designer use low pressure sodium lighting for the majority of the light. He supplemented the LPS lighting with addition of ten percent white light (fluorescent lamps, in this case). Color rendering is nearly perfect, and no one has ever brought a car back the next day to complain about color. Energy savings is maximized, and the white lights (and some of the LPS lamps too) go off after the lot closes.